Reference Materials sorted by year published.

List of publications related to IBEX collagen biomarker assays.


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  • Kuhi L, Tamm A, Kumm J, Järv K, Aare M, Agu O, Kisand T and Kisand K, (2021). Associations of Urinary Collagen II Neoepitope C2C with Total Knee Replacement Outcomes: Is OA a Systemic Disease in Rapidly Progressive Cases? Appl. Sci. 2022, 12, 164.


  • Azukizawa M, Ito H, Hamamoto Y, Fujii T, Morita Y et al. (2019). The effects of well-rounded exercise program on sysytemic biomarkers related to cartilage metabolism. Cartilage. 10: 451-8.
  • Bender A, Kaessner U, Eichner G, Bachmann G, Steinmeyer J. (2019). Biomarkers of hand osteoarthritis are detectable after mechanical exercise. J. Clin. Medicine. 8:1545.
  • Bricca A, Struglics A, Larsson S, Steultjens M, Juhl CB, Roos EM. (2019). Impact of exercise therapyon molecular biomarkers related to cartilage and inflammation in people at risk of, or with established, knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 71: 1504-15.
  • Knych HK, Mama KR, Moore CE, Hill AE, McKemie DS. (2019). Plasma and synovial fluid concentrations and cartilage toxicity of bupivacaine following intra-articular administration of a liposomal formulation to horses. Equine Vet. 51:408-14
  • Nelson AE, Fang F, Arbeeva L, Cleveland RJ, Schwartz TA et al. (2019). A machine learning approach to knee osteoarthritis phenotyping: data from the FNIH Biomarkers Consortium. Osteoarthris Cartilage. 27: 994-1001.
  • Struglics A, Saleh R, Sundberg E, Olsson M, Erlandsson Harris H, Aulin C. (2019). Juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients have a distinct cartilage and bone biomarker profile that differs from healthy and knee-injured children. Clin. Exp. Rheumatol. Epub, In press


  • Chu CR, Sheth S, Erhart-Hledik JC, Do B, Titchenal, MR, Andriacchi, TP. (2018). Mechanically stimulated biomarkers signal cartilage changes over 5 years consistent with disease progression in medial knee osteoarthritis patients. J. Orthop. Res. 36:891-7.
  • Davis HC, Spang JT, Loesser RF, Larsson S, Ulici V et al. (2018). Time between anterior cruciate ligament injury and reconstruction and cartilage metabolism six-months following reconstruction. Knee. 25:296-305.
  • Gabusi E, Paolella F, Manferdini C, Gambari L, Kon E et al. (2018a). Cartilage and bone serum biomarkers as novel tools for monitoring knee osteochondritis dissecans treated with osteochondral scaffold. Biomed. Res. Int. 2018: 9275102.
  • Gabusi E, Manferdini C, Paolella F, Gambari L, Kon E et al. (2018b). Clinical and Biological signature of osteochondritis dessicans in a cross-sectional study. Biomed. Res. Int. 2018: 5458704 39.
  • Huang X, Post JN, Zhong L, Leijten J, Larsson S et al (2018). Dickkopf-related protein 1 and gremlin 1 show different response than frizzled-related protein in human synovial fluid following knee injury and in patients with osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 26: 834-43.
  • Ma T, Zhang Z, Song X, Bai H, Li Y et al. (2018). Combined detection of COMP and CS846 biomarkers in experimental rat osteoarthritis: a potential approach for assessment and diagnosis of osteoarthritis. J. Orthop. Surg. Res. 13: 230
  • Titchenal MR, Williams AA, Asay JL, Migliore E, Erhart-Hledik JC et al. (2018). Mechanically stimulated CS846 correlates with ultrashort echo time enhanced T2* quantitative MRI and gait mechanics 2 years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 26:344.
  • Tsuruta A, Horiike T, Yoshimura M, Nagaoka I. (2018). Evaluation of the effect of the administration of a glucosamine-containing supplement on biomarkers for cartilage metabolism in soccer players: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. Mol. Med. Rep. 18: 3941-8.


  • Boeth H, MacMahon A, Poole AR, Buttgereit F, Onnefjord P et al. (2017). Differences in biomarkers of cartilage matrix turnover and their changes over 2 years in adolescent and adult volleyball athletes. J Exp Orthop 4: 1-11.
  • Chu CR, Sheth S, Erhart-Hledik JC, Do B, Titchenal, MR, Andriacchi, TP. (2017). Mechanically stimulated biomarkers signal cartilage changes over 5 years consistent with disease progression in medial knee osteoarthritis patients. J Orthop Res. 2017 Sep 1. doi: 10.1002/jor.23720. [Epub ahead of print].
  • Coppelman E. (2017). The use of biomarkers to determine the severity of osteoarthritis in the tarsus of an older horse population. Thesis submitted to the University of Minnesota
  • Hatcher CC, Collins AT, Kim SY, Michel LC, Mostertz WC 3rd et al. (2017). Relationship between T1rho magnetic resonance imaging, synovial fluid biomarkers, and the biochemical and biomechanical properties of cartilage. J Biomech ;55:18-26.
  • Kraus VB, Collins JE, Hargrove D, Losina E, Nevitt M et al. (2017a) Predictive validity of biochemical biomarkers in knee osteoarthritis: data from the FNIH OA Biomarkers Consortium. Ann Rheum Dis. 76:186-95.
  • Kraus V, Hargrove DE, Hunter DJ, Renner JB, Jordan JM. (2017b). Establishment of reference intervals for osteoarthritis-related soluble biomarkers: the FNIH/OARSI biomarkers consortium. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 76:179-85
  • Kubomura D, Ueno T, Yamada M, Tomonaga M, Nagaoka I. (2017). Effect of N-acetylglucosamine administration on cartilage metabolism and safety in healthy subjects without symptoms of arthritis: A case report. Exp. Ther. Med. 13: 1614-21.
  • Mündermann A, Klenk C, Billich C, Nüesch C, Pagenstert G et al. (2017). Changes in cartilage biomarker levels during a transcontinental multistage footrace over 4486 km. Am J Sports Med. 2017 Jun1:363546517712945.doi:10.1177/0363546517712945. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Owens BD, Cameron KL, Bokshan SL, Clifton KB, Svoboda SJ, Wolf, JM. (2017). Serum cartilage biomarkers and shoulder instability. Orthopedics 40: 34-6.
  • Noe B, Poole AR, Mort JS, Richard H, Beauchamp G et al. (2017). C2K77 ELISA detects cleavage of type II collagen by cathepsin K in equine articular cartilage. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 25:2119-26
  • Pietrosimone B, Loeser RF, Blackburn JT, Padua DA, Harkey MS, et al. (2017). Biochemical markers of cartilage metabolism are associated with walking biomechanics six-months following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. J Orthop Res 2 MAR 2017, DOI: 10.1002/jor.23534
  • Tomonaga A, Takahashi T, Tanaka YT, Tsuboi M, Ito K, Nagaoka I. (2017). Evaluation of the effect of salmon nasal proteoglycan on biomarkers for cartilage metabolism in individuals with knee joint discomfort: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical study. Exp Ther Med.14:115-26.


  • Chavez H, Folch H, Araya O, Uberti H, Moran G. (2016). Concentration of the CS-846 Epitope in Serum and Synovial Fluid of Horses with Different Grades of Osteochondral Fragments in the Carpal Joints. Gen. Med. 4:3 DOI: 10.4172/2327-5146.1000242
  • Kraus VB, Collins JE, Hargrove D, Losina E, Nevitt M et al. (2016) Predictive validity of biochemical biomarkers in knee osteoarthritis: data from the FNIH OA Biomarkers Consortium. Ann Rheum Dis. 76:186-95.
  • Niehoff A, Bruggemann G-P, Zaucke F, Eckstein F, Bloch W et al. (2016). Long-duration space flight and cartilage adaptation: first results on changes in tissue metabolism. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 24:S144-5
  • Oldenburg J, Zimmermann R, Katsarou O, Zanon E, Kellermann E et al. (2016). Potential biomarkers of haemophilic arthropathy: correlations with compatible additive magnetic resonance imaging scores. Haemophilia 22: 760-4.
  • Pietrosimone B, Blackburn JT, Harkey MS, Luc BA, Hackney AC et al. (2016a). Greater mechanical loading during walking is associated with less collagen turnover in individuals with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Am J Sports Med. 44:425-32.
  • Pietrosimone B, Blackburn T, Harkey MS, Luc BA, Hackney AC et al. (2016b). Walking speed as a potential indicator of cartilage breakdown following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 68: 793-800.
  • Poole AR (2016). Current opinion: where are we in our understanding and treatment of osteoarthritis ? Swiss Med Wkly 146: w14340.
  • Poole AR, Ha N, Bourdon S, Sayre EC, Guermazi A, Cibere J. (2016). Ability of a urine assay of type II collagen cleavage by collagenases to detect early onset and progression of articular cartilage degeneration: Results from a population-based cohort study. J Rheumatol. 43:1864-70.
  • Svoboda, SJ, Owens, BD, Harvey TM, Tarwater,PM, Brechue WF Cameron, KL. (2016). Biomarkers of collagen turnover and subsequent anterior cruciate ligament rupture. Am J Sports Med. 44: 1687-93
  • Tomonaga A, Watanabe K, Fukagawa M, Suzuki A, Kurokawa M, Nagaoka I. (2016). Evaluation of the effect of N-acetyl-glucosamine administration on biomarkers for cartilage metabolism in healthy individuals without symptoms of arthritis: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. Exp. Ther. Med. 12: 1481-9.
  • Vilar JM, Rubio M, Spinella G, Cuervo B, Sopena J, Cugat R et al. (2016) Serum collagen Type II cleavage epitope and serum hyaluronic acid as biomarkers for treatment monitoring of dogs with hip osteoarthritis. PloS ONE 11(2): e0149472. doi:10.1371/journal. pone. 0149472.
  • Wasilko SM, ,Tourville, TW, DeSarno MJ, Slauterbeck JR, Johnson RJ et al. (2016). Relationship between synovial fluid biomarkers of articular cartilage metabolism and the patient’s perspective of outcome depends on the severity of articular cartilage damage following ACL trauma. J Orthop Res 34:820–7.


  •  Kilgallon CP, Larsen S, Wong A, Yellowley C. (2015). Analysis of a collagen II degradation protein C2C and a collagen II formation protein CPII in serum of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). J Zoo Wild Led 46: 146-9.
  • Kumahashi N, Sward P, Larsson S, Lohmander LS, Frobell R, Struglics A. (2015). Type II collagen C2C epitope in human synovial fluid and serum after knee injury-associations with molecular and structural markers of injury. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 23: 1506-12.
  • Soto-Hermida A, Fernandez-Moreno M, Pertaga-Diaz S, Oreiro N, Fernando-Lopez C et al. (2015) Mitochondrial DNA haplogroups modulate the radiographic progression of Spanish patients with osteoarthritis. Rheumatol. Int 35: 337-44.
  • van Vulpen LF, van Meergeren ME, Roosendaal G, Jansen NW, van Laar JM et al. (2015). Biochemical markers of joint damage increase shortly after a joint bleed; an explorative human and canine in vivo study. Osteoarthritis Cart 23: 63-9.


  • He G, Chen X, Zhang G, Lin H, Wu X. (2014). Detection of urine C2C and trace element level in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Cell Biochem Biophys 70:475-9.
  • Huebner JL, Bay-Jensen AC, Huffman KM, He Y, Leeming DJ et al(2014). Alpha C-telopeptide of type I collagen is associated with subchondral bone turnover and predicts progression of joint space narrowing and osteophytes in osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2014 Sep;66(9):2440-9
  • Tamm AO, Kumm J, Tamm A, Lintrop M, Kukner A et al. (2014). Cartilage collagen neoepitope C2C and clinical parameters in middle-aged patients with knee problems. Correlations of urinary output of C2C with cartilage lesions, KOOS values and functional abilities of lower limb. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 22: S70-S71.


  • Brown CW, Huang CH, Stepp PC, Chu CR. (2013). Serum and synovial fluid biomarkers of cartilage and matrix turnover in human subjects with anterior cruciate ligament and degenerative meniscal tears. Trans. Orthop. Res. Soc. 483.
  • Hunt MA, Pollock C L, Kraus VB, Saxne T, Peters S et al. (2013). Relationships amongst osteoarthritis biomarkers, dynamic knee joint load, and exercise: results from a randomized controlled pilot study. BMC Musculoskeletal Disord 14:115.
  • Ramonda R, Lorenzin M, Modesti V, Campana C, Ortolan A, et al. (2013). Serological markers of erosive hand osteoarthritis. Eur J Intern Med 24:11-5
  • Momomura R, Naito K, Igarashi M, Watari T, Terakado A et al. (2013). Evaluation of the effects of glucosamine administration on biomarkers of cartilage and bone metabolism in bicycle racers. Mol. Med. Rep. 7: 742-6
  • Svoboda SJ, Harvey TM, Owens BD, Brechue WF, Tarwater PM, Cameron KL. (2013). Changes in serum biomarkers of cartilage turnover after anterior cruciate ligament injury. Am J Sports Med 41: 2108-16.
  • Tourville TW, Johnson RJ, Slauterbeck JR, Naud S, Beynnon BD. (2013). Relationship between markers of type II collagen metabolism and tibiofemoral joint space width changes after ACL injury and reconstruction. Am J Sports Med 41:779-87.
  • Yamaguchi S, Aoyama T, Ito A, Nagai M, Iijima H et al. (2013). Effects of exercise level on biomarkers in a rat knee model of osteoarthritis. J Orthop Res 31:1026-31.
  • Yoshida H, Kojima T, Kurokouchi K, Hanamura H et al. (2013). Relationship between pre-radiographic cartilage damage following anterior cruciate ligament injury and biomarkers of cartilage turnover in clinical practice: a cross-sectional observational study. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 21:831-8.


  • Dejica V, Mort JS, Laverty S, Antoniou J, Zukor DJ et al. (2012). Increased type II collagen cleavage by cathepsin K and collagenase activities with aging and osteoarthritis in human articular cartilage. Arthritis Res Therapy 14: R113.
  • Fernandez-Moreno M, Soto-Hermida A, Oreiro N, Pertega S, Fenandez-Lopez C et al. (2012). Mitochondrial haplogroups define two phenotypes of osteoarthritis. Front Physiol 3:129
  • Goode AP, Marshall SW, Kraus VB, Renner JB, Stürmer T et al. (2012). Associations between serum and urine biomarkers and lumbar spine individual radiographic features: the Johnston County osteoarthritis project. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 20: 1286-93.
  • Hosogane N, Watanabe K, Tsuji T, Miyamoto T, Ishii K et al. (2012). Serum cartilage metabolites as biomarkers of degenerative lumbar scoliosis. J. Orthop. Res. 30:1249-53
  • Niki Y, Takeuchi T, Nakayama M, Nagasawa H, Kurasawa T et al. (2012). Clinical significance of cartilage biomarkers for monitoring structural joint damage in rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with anti-TNF therapy. PLoS One 7: e37447
  • Sigward SM, Pollard CD, Powers CM. (2012). The influence of sex and maturation on landing biomechanics: implications for ACL injury. Scand. J. Med. Sci. Sports. 22: 502-9.
  • van Spil WE, Jansen NW, Bijlsma JW, Reijman M, Degroot J et al. (2012). Clusters within a wide spectrum of biochemical markers of osteoarthritis: data from CHECK, a large cohort of individuals with very early symptomatic osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 20: 745-54.


  • de Grauw JC, Donabedian M, van der Lest CH, Perona G, Robert C et al. (2011). Assessment of synovial fluid biomarkers in healthy foals and in foals with tarsocrural osteochondrosis. Vet J 190:390-5.
  • Ishijima M, Watari T, Naito K, Kaneko H, Futami I et al. (2011). Relationships between biomarkers of cartilage, bone, synovial metabolism and knee pain provide insights into the origins of pain in early knee osteoarthritis. Arthritis Res Therapy 13: R22
  • Kraus VB, Burnett B, Coindreau J, Cottrell S, Eyre D et al. (2011). Application of biomarkers in the development of drugs intended for the treatment of osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 19: 515-42


  • Chandran V, Cook RJ, Edwin J, Shen H, Pellett FJ et al. (2010). Soluble biomarkers differentiate patients with psoriatic arthritis from those with psoriasis without arthritis. Rheumatology 49:1399-405.
  • Frantz NZ, Friesen KG, Andrews GA, Tokach MD, Yamka RM et al. (2010). Use of serum biomarkers to predict the development and severity of osteochondrosis lesions in the dital portion of the femur in pigs. Am. J. Vet. Res. 71: 946-52
  • Lettry V, Sumie Y, Mitsuda K, Tagami M, Hosoya K et al. (2010). Divergent diagnosis from arthroscopic findings and identification of CPII and C2C for detection of cartilage degradation in horses. Jpn J Vet Res 57: 197-206.
  • Prink A, Hayashi K, Kim SY, Kim J, Kapatkin A. (2010). Evaluation of a collagenase generated osteoarthritis biomarker in the synovial fluid from elbow joints of dogs with medial coronoid disease and unaffected dogs. Vet Surg 39: 65-70.
  • Richette P, Eymard RP, Deberg M, Vidaud D, de Kerguenec C et al. (2010). Increase in type II collagen turnover after iron depletion in patients with hereditary haematochromatosis. Rheumatology (Oxford) 49: 760
  • Wei L, Fleming BC, Sun X, Teeple E, Wu W et al. (2010). Comparison of differential biomarkers of osteoarthritis with and without posttraumatic injury in the Hartley guinea pig model. J Orthop Res 28:900-6.


  • Cibere J, Zhang H, Garnero P, Poole AR, Lobanok et al. (2009). Association of biomarkers with with pre-radiographically defined and radiographically defined knee osteoarthritis in a population-based cohort. Arthritis Rheum 60: 1372-80.
  • Hayashi PA, Kim SY, Lansdowne JL, Kapatkin A, Dejardin LM. (2009). Evaluation of a collagenase generated osteoarthritis biomarker in naturally occurring canine cruciate disease. Vet Surg 38: 1117-21
  • Jansen NW, Roosendaal G, Lundin B, Heijenen L, Mause-Bunschoten E et al. (2009). The combination of the biomarkers urinary C-terminal telopeptide of type II collagen, serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein, and serum chondroitin sulfate 846 reflects cartilage damage in hemophilic arthropathy. Arthritis Rheum 60: 290-8.
  • Trumble TN, Scarborough AB, Brown MP. (2009). Osteochondral injury increases type II collagen degradation products (C2C) in synovial fluid of Thoroughbred racehorses. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 17:371-4.
  • Yoshimura M, Sakamoto K, Tsuruta A, Yamamoto T, Ishida K, Yamaguchi H and Nagaoka I (2009). Evaluation of the effect of glucosamine administration on biomarkers for cartilage and bone metabolism in soccer players. Int. J. Mol. Med. 24:487–94.


  • Bay-Jensen AC, Andersen TL, Charni-Ben Tabassi N, Kristensen PW et al. (2008). Biochemical markers of type II collagen breakdown and synthesis are positioned at specific sites in human osteoarthritic knee cartilage. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 16; 615-23.
  • Briot K, Roux C, Gossec L, Charni N, Kolta S et al. (2008). Effects of etanercept on serum biochemical  marker of cartilage metabolism in patients with spondyloarthropathy. J Rheumatol 35:310-14
  • Conrozier T, Poole AR, Ferrand F, Mathieu P, Vincent F et al. (2008). Serum concentrations of type II collagen biomarkers (C2C, C1,2C and CPII) suggest different pathophysiologies in patients with hip osteoarthritis. Clin. Exp. Rheumatol. 26: 430-5.
  • Dejica VM, Mort JS, Laverty S, Percival MD, Antoniou J et al. (2008). Cleavage of type II collagen by cathepsin K in human osteoarthritis cartilage. Am J Pathol 173: 161-9.
  • Donabedian M, van Weeren PR, Perona G, Fleurance G, Robert C et al. (2008). Early changes in biomarkers of skeletal metabolism and their association to the occurrence of osteochondrosis (OC) in the horse. Equine Vet J 40:253-9.
  • Frisbie DD, Al-Sobayil F, Billinghurst RC, Kawcak CE, McIlwraith CW. (2008). Changes in synovial fluid and serum biomarkers with exercise and early osteoarthritis in horses. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 16:1196-2004.
  • Kojima T, Kojima M, Noda K, Ishiguro N, Poole AR. (2008). Influences of menopause, aging and gender on the cleavage of type II collagen in cartilage in relationship to bone turnover. Menopause 15: 133-7.


  • Ameye LG, Deberg M, Oliveira M, Labasse A, Aeschlimann JM, Henrotin Y. (2007). The chemical biomarkers C2C, Coll2-1 and Coll2-1NO2 provide complimentary information on type II collagen catabolism in healthy and osteoarthritic mice. Arthritis Rheum 56: 3336-46.
  • Cahue S, Sharma L, Dunlop D, Ionescu M, Song J. et al. (2007). The ratio of type II collagen breakdown to synthesis and its relationship with the progression of knee osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 15: 819-23.
  • Conrozier T, Ferrand F, Poole AR, Verret C, Mathieu P, Ionescu M, Vincent F, Piperno M, Spiegel A, Vignon E. (2007) Differences in biomarkers of type II collagen in atrophic and hypertrophic osteoarthritis of the hip: implications for the differing pathobiologies. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 15: 462-7.
  • Mullan RH, Matthews C, Bresnihan B, Fitzgerald O, King L et al. (2007). Early changes in serum type II collagen biomarkers predict radiographic progression at one year in inflammatory arthritis patients after biologic therapy. Arthritis Rheum 56: 2919-28.
  • Nemirovskiy OV, Dufield DR, Sunyer T, Aggarwal P, Welsch DJ, Mathews WR. (2007). Discovery and development of a type II collagen neoepitope (TIINE) biomarker for matrix metalloproteinase activity: from in vitro to in vivo. Annal Biochem 361: 93-101.
  • Sharma L, Dunlop D, Ionescu M, Song J, Lobanok T, King L, Cahue S, Poole AR.(2007) The Ratio of Collagen Breakdown to Collagen Synthesis and its Relationship with the Progression of Knee Osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 15(7): 819-823.


  • Huebner JL, Kraus VB. (2006), Assessment of the utility of biomarkers of osteoarthritis in the guinea pig. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 14: 923-30.
  • Kong SY, Stabler TV, Criscione LG, Elliott AL, Jordan KM, Kraus VB. (2006). Diurnal variation of serum and urine biomarkers in patients with radiographic knee osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum 54: 2496-504
  • Manicourt D-H, Azria M, Mindeholm L, Thonar E J-M, Devogelaer J-P. (2006). Oral salmon calcitonin reduces Lequesne’s algofunctional index scores and decreases urinary and serum levels of biomarkers of joint metabolism in knee osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 54: 3205-11.
  • Mazzuca SA, Poole AR, Brandt KD, Katz BP, Lane KA, Lobanok T. (2006) Associations between joint space narrowing and molecular markers of collagen and proteoglycan turnover in patients with knee osteoarthritis. J Rheumatol 33: 1147-51.
  • Nelson F, Billinghurst RC, Pidoux I, Reiner A, Langworthy M, et al. (2006). Early post-traumatic osteoarthritis-like changes in human articular cartilage following rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 14:114-9.
  • Verstappen SMM, Poole AR, Ionescu M, King LE, Abrahamowicz M et al. (2006). Radiographic joint damage in rheumatoid arthritis is associated with differences in cartilage turnover and can be predicted by serum biomarkers: an evaluation from 1 to 4 years after diagnosis. Arthritis Res Therapy 8: R31.


  • Aurich M, Squires GR, Reiner A, Mollenhauer JA, Keuttner KE et al (2005). Differential matrix degradation and turnover in early cartilage lesions of human knee and ankle joints. Arthritis Rheum 52: 112-19.
  • Celeste C, Ionescu M, Poole AR, Laverty S. (2005). Repeated intaarticular injections of triamcinolone acetonide alter cartilage matrix metabolism measured by biomarkers in synovial fluid. J Orthop Res 23:602-10.
  • Cibere J, Thorne A, Kopec JA, Singer J, Canvin J, et al. (2005). Glucosamine sulfate and cartilage : type II collagen degradation in patients with knee osteoarthritis: randomized discontinuation trial results employing biomarkers. J Rheumatol 32: 896-902.
  • Kim T-H, Stone M, Payne U, Zhang X, Ionescu M et al. (2005). Cartilage biomarkers in ankylosing spondylitis. Relationship to clinical variables and treatment response. Arthritis Rheum 52: 885-91.
  • Maksymowych WP, Poole AR, Hiebert L, Webb A, Ionescu M et al. (2005). Etanercept exerts beneficial effects on articular cartilage biomarkers of degradation and turnover in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. J Rheumatol 32: 1911-7.


  • Billinghurst RC, Brama PA, van Weeren PR, Knowlton MS, McIlwraith CW. (2004). Evaluation of serum concentrations of biomarkers of skeletal metabolism and results of radiography as indicators of severity of osteochondrosis in foals. Am J Vet Res. 65:143-50.
  • King KB, Lindsey CT, Dunn TC, Ries MD, Steinbach LS, Majumdar S. (2004). A study of the relationship between molecular biomarkers of joint degeneration and the magnetic resonance-measured characteristics of cartilage in 16 symptomatic knees. Magn. Reson. Imaging 22: 1117-23.
  • Matyas JR, Atley L, Ioenescu M, Eyre DR, Poole AR. (2004). Analysis of cartilage biomarkers in the early phase of canine experimental osteoarthritis.Arthritis Rheum 50: 543-52.
  • Poole AR., Ionescu M, Fitzcharles MA, Billinghurst R. (2004). The assessment of cartilage degradation in vivo: Development of an immunoassay for the measurement in body fluids of type II collagen cleaved by collagenases. J Immunological Methods, 294:145-53.


  • Fraser A, Fearon U, Billinghurst RC, Ionescu M, Reece R et al. (2003). Turnover of type II collagen and aggrecan in cartilage matrix at the outset of inflammatory arthritis in humans. Arthritis Rheum. 48: 3085-95.
  • Leff RL, Elias I, Ionescu M, Reiner A, Poole AR. (2003). Molecular changes in human osteoarthritis cartilage after 3 weeks of oral administration of BAY12-9566, a matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor. J Rheumatol 30: 544-9.
  • Ma J, Sorsa T, Billinghurst R, Poole AR, Kitti U et al. (2003) Direct evidence of collagenolysis in chronic periodontitis. J Periodontal Res. 38: 564-7.
  • Squires G, Okouneff S, Ionescu M, Poole AR.(2003). Pathobiology of focal lesion development in aging human articular cartilage reveals molecular matrix changes characteristic of osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum 48: 1261-70.
  • Sugiyama S, Itokazu M, Suzuki Y, Shimizu K. (2003) Procollagen II C propeptide level in the synovial fluid as a predictor of radiographic progression in early knee osteoarthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 62: 27-32.
  • Trumble TN, Billinghurst RC, McIlwraith CW. (2003) Increased levels of synthesis and degradation markers of type II collagen in the synovial fluid of canine cruciate transaction model of osteoarthritis . Trans ORS 27:0679.
  • Zack DJ, Bolon B, Hu Y-L, Poole AR, Feige U. (2003) Destruction of joint cartilage in rats with adjuvent-induced arthritis is reduced in an additive fashion by combination therapy with inhibitors of IL-1 and TNF. Arthritis and Rheumatism 48(S):S556


  • Chu Q, Lopez M, Hayashi K, Ionescu M, Billinghurst RC et al. (2002). Elevation of a collagenase generated type II collagen neoepitope amd a proteoglycan epitope in synovial fluid following induction of joint instability in the dog. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 10: 662-9.
  • Laverty S, O’Kouneff S, Ionescu M, Reiner A, Pidoux I et al (2002). Excessive degradation of type II collagen in articular cartilage in equine osteochondrosis. J Orthop Res 20: 1282-9.
  • Mwale F, Tchetina E, Wu W, Poole AR. (2002). The assembly and remodeling of the extracellular matrix in the growth plate in relationship to mineral deposition and cellular hypertrophy: an in situ study of collagens II and IX and proteoglycan. J Bone Min Res 17: 275-83.
  • Wu W, Billinghurst RC, Pidoux I, Antoniou J, Zukor D et al. (2002). Sites of collagenase cleavage and denaturation of type II collagen in aging and osteoarthritic articular cartilage and their relationship to the distribution of matrix metalloproteinase 1 and matrix metalloproteinase 13. Arthritis Rheum 46: 2087-94.


  • Kojima T, Mwale F, Yasuda T, Girard C, Poole AR, Laverty S. (2001). Early degradation of type IX and type II collagen with the onset of experimental arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 44: 120-7.
  • Robion FC, Doize B, Boure L, Marcoux M, Ionescu M et al. (2001). Use of synovial fluid markers of cartilage synthesis and turnover to study effects of repeated intra-articular administration of methyl prednisolone acetate on articular cartilage. J Orthop Res 19: 250-258.
  • Stoop R, Buma P, van der Kraan P, Hollander AP, Billinghurst RC et al. (2001). Type II collagen degradation in articular fibrillation and anterior cruciate ligament transection in rats. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 9: 308-15.


  • Bank RA, Soudry M, Maroudas A, Mizrahi J, TeKoppele JM. (2000). The increased swelling and instantaneous deformation of osteoarthritic cartilage is highly correlated with collagen degradation. Arthritis Rheum. 43: 2202-10
  • Billinghurst RC, Wu W, Ionescu M, Reiner A, Dahlberg L, Chen J, Van Wart H, Poole AR. (2000) Comparison of the degradation of type II collagen and proteoglycan in nasal and articular cartilage induced by interleukin-1 and the selective inhibition of type II collagen cleavage by collagenase. Arthritis Rheum. 43: 664-672.
  • Dahlberg L, Billinghurst C, Manner P, Ionescu M, Reiner A et al. (2000). Selective enhancement of collagenase-mediated cleavage of resident type II collagen in cultured osteoarthritic cartilage and arrest with a synthetic inhibitor that spares collagenase 1 (matrix metalloproteinase 1). Arthritis Rheum 43: 673-82.
  • Laverty S, Ionescu M, Marcoux M, Boure L, Doize B, Poole AR. (2000). Alterations in cartilage type II procollagen and aggrecan contents in synovial fluid in equine osteochondrosis. J Orthop Res 18: 399-405.
  • Mwale F, Billinghurst C, Wu W, Alini M, Webber C, Reiner A, Ionescu M, Poole J, Poole A R. (2000) Selective assembly and remodelling of collagens II and IX associated with expression of the chondrocyte hypertrophic phenotype . Developmental dynamics 218(4):648-62.
  • Otterness IG, Swindell AC, Zimmerer RO, Poole AR, Ionescu M, Weiner E. (2000). An analysis of 14 molecular markers for monitoring osteoarthritis: segregation of the 14 markers into clusters and distinguishing osteoarthritis at baseline. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 8: 180-5.
  • Poole, A.R. (2000). NIH White Paper: Biomarkers, the Osteoarthritis Initiative. National Institute of Health, NIAMS News and Events.

1990 – 1999

  • Armstrong L, Thickett DR, Mansell JP, Ionescu M, Hoyle E, et al. (1999). Changes in collagen turnover in early acute respiratory distress syndrome. Am J Resp Critical Care Med 160: 1910-15.
  • Frisbie DD, Ray CS, Ionescu M, Poole AR, Chapman PL, McIlwraith CW. (1999). Measurement of synovial fluid and serum concentrations of the 846 epitope of chondroitin sulfate and of carboxy peptides of type II procollagen for diagnosis of osteochondral fragmentation in horses. Am J Vet Res 60:306-9.
  • Lohmander LS, Ionescu M, Jugessur H, Poole AR. (1999). Changes in joint cartilage aggrecan after knee injury and in osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 42: 534-544.
  • Song X-Y, Zeng L, Jin W, Thompson J, Mizel DE et al. (1999). Secretory leucocyte protease inhibitor suppresses the inflammation and joint damage of bacterial cell wall-induced arthritis. J Exp Med 190: 535-42.
  • Stoop R, van der Kraan PM, Buma P, Hollander AP, Billinghurst RC, et al. (1999). Type II collagen degradation in spontaneous osteoarthritis in C57B1/6 and BALB/c mice. Arthritis Rheum 42: 2381- 9.
  • Sukhova GK, Schönbeck Y, Rabkin E, Schoen FJ, Poole AR, Billinghurst RC, Libby P. (1999) Evidence for increased collagenolysis by interstitial collagenases -1 and -3 in vulnerable human atheromatous plaques. Circulation 99:2503-2509.
  • van Meurs J, van Lent P, Stoop R, Holthuysen A, Singer I et al.(1999). Cleavage of aggrecan at the ASN341-PHE342 site coincides with the initiation of collagen damage in murine antigen-induced arthritis. A pivotal role for stromelysin 1 in matrix metalloproteinase activity. Arthritis Rheum 42: 2074-84.
  • Nelson F, Dahlberg L, Laverty S, Reiner A, Pidoux I et al. (1998). Evidence for altered synthesis of type II collagen in patients with osteoarthritis.  J Clin Invest 102:  2115-25.
  • Billinghurst RC, Dahlberg L, Ionescu M, Reiner A, Bourne R et al. (1997). Enhanced cleavage of type II collagen by collagenases in osteoarthritic articular cartilage. J Clin Invest 99:1534-45.
  • Carey DE, Alini M, Ionescu M, Hyams JS, Rowe JC, et al. (1997). Serum content of the C-propeptide of the cartilage molecule type II collagen in children. Clin Exp Rheumatol 15: 325-8.
  • Antoniou J, Steffen T, Nelson F, Winterbottom N, Hollander AP, et al. (1996). The human lumbar intervertebral disc. Evidence for changes in the biosynthesis and denaturation of the extracellular matrix with growth, maturation, ageing and degeneration. J Clin Invest 98: 996-1003.
  • Lohmander SL, Yoshihara Y, Roos H, Kobayashi T, Yamada H, Shinmei M. (1996) Procollagen II C-Propeptide in Joint fluid: Changes in concentration with age, time after knee injury and osteoarthritis. J. Rheumatol. 23: 1765-1769.
  • Mitchell PG, Magna HA, Reeves LM, Lopresti-Morrow LL, Yocum SA et al. (1996). Cloning, expression and type II collagenolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinase-13 from human osteoarthritic cartilage. J Clin Invest 97: 761-8.
  • Mansson B, Carey D, Alini M, Ionescu M, Rosenberg LC, Poole AR, Heinegard D, Saxne T. (1995). Cartilage and bone metabolism in rheumatoid arthritis. J. Clin. Invest. 95: 1071-1077.
  • Poole AR, Alini M, Hollander AH. (1995) Cellular biology of cartilage degradation. In: Henderson B, Edwards, J.C.W, Pettipher, E.R, (Eds.). Mechanisms and models in rheumatoid arthritis. London: Academic Press; pp. 163-204.
  • Hollander A P, Heathfield T F, Webber C, Iwata Y, Bourne R, Rorabeck C, Poole A R. (1994) Increased damage to type II collagen in osteoarthritic articular cartilage detected by a new immunoassay. J Clin Invest 93: 1722-32
  • Poole AR, Ionescu M, Swan A, Dieppe PA. (1994). Changes in cartilage metabolism in arthritis are reflected by altered serum and synovial fluid levels of the cartilage proteoglycan aggrecan. Implications for pathogenesis. J Clin Invest 94: 25-33.
  • Rizkalla G, Reiner A, Bogoch E, Poole AR. (1992). Studies of the articular cartilage proteoglycan in health and osteoarthritis: Evidence for molecular heterogeneity and extensive molecular changes in disease. J Clin Invest 90: 2268-77.

1985 – 1989

  • Engstrom-Laurent A. (1989). Changes in hyaluronan concentration in tissues and body fluids in disease states. In: The Biology of Hyaluronan. D. Evered, J. Whelan (Eds.), John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, U.K., pp. 233-247.
  • Glant TT, Mikecz PJ, Roughley PJ, Buzas E, Poole AR. (1986) Age related changes in protein-related epitopes of human articular cartilage proteoglycans. Biochem J. 236: 71-75.
  • van der Rest M, Rosenberg LC, Olsen BR, Poole AR. (1986). Chondrocalcin is identical with the C-propeptide of type II collagen. Biochem J 237: 923-5.
  • Tyler JA. (1985).Articular cartilage cultured with catabolin (pig interleukin 1) synthesizes a deceased number of normal proteoglycan molecules. Biochem J 227: 869-78.
  • Tyler JA, Benton HP. (1988). Synthesis of type II collagen is decreased in cartilage cultured with interleukin 1 while the rate of intracellular digestion remains unchanged. Collagen. Rel. Res. 8: 393- 405.